게코도마뱀 Reptile habitats need to be warm and sunny, with areas where they can shelter from extreme temperatures. They also need areas for basking, hiding, and food.
Reptiles that like to climb will benefit from longer terrariums, and aquatic species will need to have a pool area. They may also need a humid hide and a misting system.
Many reptiles require a warm ambient temperature (70 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit) and a hotter basking spot to thrive. If the ambient temperature drops too low, reptiles will lose the ability to process food and can become ill.
Unlike mammals, cold-blooded reptiles must use the heat from their environment to maintain critical biological functions. Consequently, they are very sensitive to altered environmental temperatures, including those caused by climate change.
Most reptile and amphibian keepers prefer a thermal gradient over a uniformly heated habitat. This consists of creating a warm area (basking spot) with a cooler area for hiding or sleeping. Heat sources such as a heat lamp, radiant heat panels, under tank heating pads or incandescent bulbs are commonly used to provide this heat source. They are often regulated by a thermostat to prevent overheating and burning.
Avoid using rock heaters (also known as heat rocks) in your reptiles habitat as they can burn them if not properly monitored. Instead, a ceramic 게코도마뱀 heat emitter provides penetrating, non-reflective heating without the risk of burns. These are a popular choice with snake and turtle owners and are available from most pet stores or online reptile supply sites.
Reptiles must regulate their body temperature, so it is essential that their habitats offer a variety of temperatures. The ideal terrarium should include a warm end with a ceramic heat emitter or overhead incandescent light and a cool area where they can retreat. This is similar to the climate of their natural habitats.
Most reptiles also require a 12-hour light-and-dark cycle that mimics their natural day-and-night rhythms. Whether or not your pet is diurnal or nocturnal, she needs to have her own place of rest and relaxation each night.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air, and it can affect how hot or cold an enclosure feels to a reptile. It’s important to invest in a thermometer and hygrometer for your terrarium so you can monitor the environment and ensure that it stays within your reptile’s preferred temperature range.
It’s also important to have a good substrate. Reptile carpet or a bedding material that holds moisture (like aspen/cypress, peat or sphagnum moss) are good options and are available at most pet stores. Regular misting helps moisten the substrate and keep humidity moderate to high, but it isn’t appropriate for all species, and it can promote fungus growth in some reptiles. Providing a large, shallow water feature is another great way to increase humidity in a reptile habitat.
Reptile habitats require the right light and heat to support feeding and activity behavior. Specialized lights made for reptiles give them the proper amount of UV (ultraviolet) rays they need to keep their bones strong and regulate their metabolism. These lights must be placed in a way that does not risk burning your pet. It is best to choose a fluorescent light with a spectral output that includes UVB rays or a mercury vapor bulb.
The rest of the habitat provides the reptiles with ground-based thermal niches to thermo-regulate their body temperature. Rocky pond edges provide basking opportunities for snakes and lizards, and dune habitats may be important antipredation refugia for turtles. Natural fire regimes and weed control help maintain habitat ‘hot-spots’ that support a range of reptile species.
Many reptiles rely on the sun to help them set their daily schedule, and it is important to recreate this cycle in captivity. This can be done with a special lamp that imitates the sun on a timer. For a nocturnal reptile, a moon light may be needed to simulate the sun setting in order to trigger their nighttime activities.
Reptiles require a large supply of clean water. Some species – such as scaly lizards – need water to cool down, while others (such as aquatic turtles) use it for breeding and feeding. Water must be filtered to reduce organic waste and disease-causing bacteria. It should also be aerated and regulated in the case of aquatic turtles and other semiaquatic reptiles.
A diverse habitat structure is important for reptiles, including a mixture of vegetative types and heights. For example, a site with a mix of mature and younger trees (both on and adjacent to the reptile areas) can provide different ground temperatures for thermal refuge, and the older trees can help prevent heavy shading that may impact reptiles.
Many reptiles are primarily terrestrial but also spend time in water and/or sand or gravel. In these cases, they require an enclosure with some structural features that simulate the elements of their natural habitats. For example, arboreal lizards need vertical and horizontal branches for climbing; snakes require hiding boxes; and terrestrial tortoises need a hide box or burrow.
Reptile habitats should be designed with a variety of microclimates that differ by surface type, elevation, substrate and vegetation. These differences in habitat structure allow reptiles to regulate their body temperature by moving from warmer sunny areas to cooler shady spots.
Because of their ectothermic nature, reptiles rely on ambient environmental temperatures to maintain critical physiological processes such as digestion and respiration. As a result, many reptile species are particularly sensitive to climate change.
The floor of a reptile habitat should be covered with reptile carpet or some other suitable bedding material (ask a PetSmart associate for recommendations). This bedding material helps with the animal’s thermal regulation, provides a soft surface for burrowing and offers protection from predators.
Often, hobbyists and herpetoculturists modify existing structures such as prefabricated shower stalls, jewelry or deli display cases, old armoires and sturdy wooden bookcases into habitats for their animals. These structures should provide ample width and depth to accommodate the occupants’ cage “furnishings” as well as adequate room for thermoregulation, lighting and humidity. It’s important that the dimensions of any enclosure set up for multiple reptiles be increased by one-half for each additional animal housed together.